External databases in which we have collaborated

PTMcode v2: a resource for functional associations of post-translational modifications within and between proteins.

The post-translational regulation of proteins is mainly driven by two molecular events, their modification by several types of moieties and their interaction with other proteins. These two processes are interdependent and together are responsible for the function of the protein in a particular cell state. Several databases focus on the prediction and compilation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and no less on the collection and analysis of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs), however, there are no resources that concentrate on describing the regulatory role of PTMs in PPIs. We developed several methods based on residue co-evolution and proximity to predict the functional associations of pairs of PTMs that we apply to modifications in the same protein and between two interacting proteins. In order to make data available for understudied organisms, PTMcode v2 ( includes a new strategy to propagate PTMs from validated modified sites through orthologous proteins. The second release of PTMcode covers 19 eukaryotic species from which we collected more than 300 000 experimentally verified PTMs (>1 300 000 propagated) of 69 types extracting the post-translational regulation of >100 000 proteins and >100 000 interactions. In total, we report 8 million associations of PTMs regulating single proteins and over 9.4 million interplays tuning PPIs.

PTMCode 2 is available at:


Minguez P, Letunic I, Parca L, Garcia-Alonso L, Dopazo J, Huerta-Cepas J, Bork P. 2014. PTMcode v2: a resource for functional associations of post-translational modifications within and between proteins.


SNPeffect: on-line prediction of molecular and structural effects of protein-coding variants

Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) are, together with copy number variation, the primary source of variation in the human genome and are associated with phenotypic variation such as altered response to drug treatment and susceptibility to disease. Linking structural effects of non-synonymous SNVs to functional outcomes is a major issue in structural bioinformatics. The SNPeffect database uses sequence- and structure-based bioinformatics tools to predict the effect of protein-coding SNVs on the structural phenotype of proteins. It integrates aggregation prediction (TANGO), amyloid prediction (WALTZ), chaperone-binding prediction (LIMBO) and protein stability analysis (FoldX) for structural phenotyping. Additionally, SNPeffect holds information on affected catalytic sites and a number of post-translational modifications. The database contains all known human protein variants from UniProt, but users can now also submit custom protein variants for a SNPeffect analysis, including automated structure modeling. The new meta-analysis application allows plotting correlations between phenotypic features for a user-selected set of variants.

SNPeffect is available at:

Papers available at: 

De Baets,G.,  Van Durme, J., Reumers, J., Maurer-Stroh, S., Vanhee, P., Dopazo, J., Schymkowitz, J. and Rousseau,F. SNPeffect 4.0: on-line prediction of molecular and structural effects of protein-coding variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012; 40(Database issue): D935–D939.


Reumers, J., Conde, L., Medina, I., Maurer-Stroh, S., Van Durme, J., Dopazo, J., Rousseau, F. Schymkowitz, J. Joint annotation of coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms and mutations in the SNPeffect and PupaSuite databases. Nucleic Acids Research, 2008; 36:D825–D829